Author(s): Haralabus Georgios, Zampolli Mario, Nielsen Peter, Stanley Jerry, Mattila James
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) opened for signature in 1996 with the aim to ban nuclear explosions by everyone, everywhere on the Earth. Its verification regime relies on the International Monitoring System (IMS) that consists of 337 facilities worldwide which provide global coverage and detect signs of nuclear explosions using 50 primary and 120 auxiliary seismic stations, 60 infrasound stations, 80 radiation-monitoring stations, 16 radionuclide laboratories, and 11 hydroacoustic stations. Of the 11 hydroacoustic stations, five are T-stations which use on-shore seismometers to pick up waterborne signals coupled into the Earth’s crust. The other six are cabled hydrophone stations with two triplets of moored hydrophones (with the exception of one station in Australia, which has a single triplet). The hydrophones are deployed as close as possible to the local SOFAR channel axis. The primary purpose of the IMS network is to monitor the world for signs of nuclear explosion. An overview of the establishment and sustainment of hydroacoustic network will be presented - the first of four IMS technology segments (hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasound, and radionuclide) that has been completely installed and certified to date. This IMS focus on Treaty verification does not exclude or prohibit the additional supporting of civil and scientific applications from further use of the CTBT IMS Network data. The continuous and global and long-term coverage offered by the hydroacoustic network provide unique opportunities for studies of the undersea soundscape, long-term ambient noise variability, and long-distance sound propagation evaluation. Examples of civil and scientific applications of IMS Hydroacoustic data will be presented, including: undersea soundscape and long-term ambient noise monitoring, undersea volcano and seismic activities, long-distance sound propagation and source localization.
Name: Dr Georgios Haralabus